Christopher B Robbins, Daniel J Vreeman, Mark S Sothmann, Stephen L Wilson, and Neil B Oldridge (2009)
A review of the long-term health outcomes associated with war-related amputation.
Mil Med, 174(6):588-92.
The rate of war-related amputations in current U.S. military personnel is now twice that experienced by military personnel in previous wars. We reviewed the literature for health outcomes following war-related amputations and 17 studies were retrieved with evidence that (a) amputees are at a significant risk for developing cardiovascular disease; (b) insulin may play an important role in regulating blood pressure in maturity-onset obesity; (c) lower-extremity amputees are at risk for joint pain and osteoarthritis; (d) transfemoral amputees report a higher incidence of low back pain than transtibial amputees; and (e) 50 to 80% report phantom limb pain, with many amputees stating they were either told that their pain was imagined or their mental state was questioned. The consistency ofthe observations on health outcomes in these studies warrants careful examination for their implication in the contemporary treatment of war-related amputation.